Cystoid macular edema following cataract surgery (aphakic or pseudophakic cystoid macular edema), also known as Irvine-Gass syndrome, is a known risk of cataract surgery. Because of the advances in cataract extraction, especially phacoemulsification, there is less surgical manipulation, shorter operative times, and decreased rates of intraoperative complications; as a result, there is less postoperative inflammation. Despite these advances, cystoid macular edema remains a significant cause of postoperative visual acuity that is less than expected. Cystoid macular edema OCT can aid the clinician in diagnosing cystoid macular edema, as well as in monitoring the response to treatment. While steroidal and nonsteroidal medical therapies remain the mainstay of therapy, anti-VEGF agents or surgical intervention can be considered in recalcitrant cases.
Upon completion of this Focal Points module, you should be able to:
- Discuss the pathophysiology of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) and its risk factors
- Describe the key diagnostic features and differential diagnosis
- Summarize the various medical and surgical treatment options for pseudophakic cystoid macular edema
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